Pallywood: A History

For more on Pallywood, including extensive raw footage revealing some of its most pervasive activity, see The Second Draft’s dossier.



The term “Pallywood” refers to the staging of scenes by Palestinian journalists in order to present the Palestinians as hapless victims of Israeli aggression. They are able to succeed in this endeavor in large part due to the credulity and eagerness of the Western press to present these images, which reinforce the image of the Palestinian David struggling valiantly against the overpowering Israeli Goliath. Pallywood has led to astonishing lapses in Western journalistic standards in which badly staged scenes regularly appear on the news as “real events.” This page attempts to outline how such lapses could have come about, producing the current situation.


1982: Lebanon invasion

The earliest clear signs of an emerging Pallywood come from the Lebanese invasion of 1982. There, for the first time, the media seems to have embraced an openly hostile stance towards Israel, which led to a widely discussed article entitled “J’Accuse” (Commentary, September 1983), by Norman Podhoretz who charged America’s leading journalists, newspapers and television networks with “anti-Semitism.” The alleged hostility was characterized by the following incidents:

- Using Arafat’s brother, Fathi Arafat, head of the Palestinian Red Crescent, Palestinian sources claimed 10,000 dead and 600,000 refugees from the Israeli onslaught. Without checking to see how many people lived in southern Lebanon (300,000), the media repeated these figures constantly (pp. 300-301), until they became widely accepted.

- Reporters comparing the siege of Beirut with the Nazi siege of Warsaw. Of all the sieges of cities in 20th century warfare, it would be harder to find a more inappropriate one, and yet the analogy between Israelis and Nazis seems to have had an almost irresistable lure to some journalists. Among the most aggressive reporters was Peter Jennings. For a discussion of his work, see here and here.

- The use of clearly false images by a press eager to believe the worst of the Israeli army, including images of areas devastated in the civil war between Palestinians and Lebanese, dead babies that were not dead, etc (pp. 353-389).

- Coverage of Sabra and Shatilla massacres that left many under the impression that Israeli soldiers had massacred Palestinian refugees, and failed to inform people of why the Phalange wanted to take vengeance. Everyone has heard of Sabra and Shatilla; Only recently have people started to hear of Darfur. The stark contrast between the hundreds of dead at Sabra and Shatilla and the over ten thousand dead at Hama, a town in the heart of Syria, the same year, illustrates both the medias penchant for reporting any Israeli misdeed no matter how removed direct culpability, and the power of intimidation and (no) access journalism to silence them on matters of Arab misdeeds (see Friedman, From Beirut to Jerusalém, chap. 4.)

- Use of streaming text below footage informing the viewer that the footage had been viewed by “Israeli military censors.” No similar indication of the role of Palestinian “authorities” in controlling the images emanating from areas under their control ever appeared. For a discussion of the press’s differential treatment of formal Israeli military censorship and informal but pervasive Palestinian censorship via intimidation and violence, (see pp. 353-387).

- Reluctance of the press – especially the “resident” reporters to reveal the extent of PLO brutality in the “state within a state” in southern Lebanon (see pp 219-278).

Given the eagerness of the Western press to report the worst of the Israelis, to avoid reporting on the worst of the Palestinians, their susceptibility to intimidation and the murder of journalists who displeased the PLO, and their remarkably shoddy standards in sifting real from confected evidence, Palestinians clearly understood that they had a valuable ally in the Western media based at the Commodore Hotel – “Chairman Yasser’s Best Battalion” (Chafets, Double Vision, chap. 6).

Poisoning of Palestinian Schoolgirls, Jenin (West Bank), March, 1983

A year after the Lebanese media debacle, Israel found itself the object of an extensive, premeditated fraud in which a number of Palestinian girls at middle school claimed to have been poisoned by “the Israelis.” The story immediately became an international scandal, with each nation reporting such a variety of details that the tale ended up resembling a version of Rashoman. None, however, questioned the veracity of the reports of poisoning, nor of the accusations of Israeli guilt. Only after a lengthy investigation did it turn out that there were no girls poisoned, and that PLO operatives had encouraged and bullied the girls and the hospital officials into cooperating.

The most interesting element of the story from the perspective of the media coverage reveals the following breakdown:

- The Israeli press took the accusations seriously and only after a medical investigation did they conclude that these were false.

- The Palestinian and Arab press immediately assumed they were true and used them to incite hatred and fear of Israelis. No amount of counter-evidence brought a change in coverage.

- The Western press presented the accusations as probable if not true (Europeans far more aggressive than Americans), and when the evidence of staging emerged, ceased to cover the incident, leaving the Israelis between libel and silence.

The accusations of Poison constitute the first clear-cut case of Pallywood: atrocities staged by Palestinian activists, depicting the Israelis poisoning innocent Palestinians, done for the sake of – and embraced by – both local and foreign press.

The First Intifada, 1987-91?

During the first Intifada, the media turned the West Bank into a feeding frenzy of Israeli brutality against what was often characterized as non-violent resistance. Here for the first time, we find an open collaboration between cameramen who were either informed of the imminent occurrence of, or had paid for, action sequences that they could photograph.

Staggering from the negative press, and uncertain as to how to quell the violence, Israeli authorities sometimes closed the territories to foreign press. These latter often supped drinks at the American Colony Hotel in East Jerusalem while they gave cameras to Palestinian stringers to bring them action footage. This probably marks the first time that Palestinians with Western equipment were able to feed the news agencies images that they and the “street” staged. For an interesting analysis of the media’s handling of the first Intifada and the ways in which, focused on a particular story line (the Israeli Goliath vs. the Palestinian David), see Jim Lederman, Battle Lines.

There has also been in recent times an increasing number of web/newspaper articles that have described and denounced the manipulation of the media by Palestinians, and the anti-Israel bias of many in the western media.

- Recently a Palestinian filmmaker, producer of “Jenin, Jenin” admitted falsifying scenes in order to make Israelis look bad.

- Jeff Helmreich has documented a pattern of violation of professional journalism codes that dominate the reporting of Israel and the Palestinians.

- In an interview media analyst David Bedein has argued that for the past twenty years, the Palestinians have outmaneuvered the Israelis in framing the conflict for the world media.

- Josh Muravchik denounced the lousy job of the Western media covering the intifada and denounced the mechanical even handedness in reporting the conflict that gives the upper hand to authoritarian societies.

- Stephanie Gutmann, in “The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media supremacy” argues that Israel has floundered on the battlefield of editorial pages, television screens and the Internet.

The second “Al Aqsa” Intifada, October 2000-2004?

The outbreak of the second round of Palestinian violence against Israel came, ironically, in the wake of peace negotiations in which, according to the most credible sources, the Israelis offered the vast majority of the West Bank and all of the Gaza Strip (including the evacuation of settlements) in exchange for an end to the war between the Israelis and the Arabs. For a brief moment Barak and the Israelis actually got some sympathy in the world arena, and Arafat was weathering a rare period of disapproval from the world community. But once the violence broke out, and Israel could be blamed, and especially once pictures of Muhamed al Durah showed on TVs around the world, opinion shifted dramatically and decisively.

Perhaps the best way to understand how Pallywood was able to have such success at this juncture is to examine what happened on September 29, the day after Sharon visited the Temple Mount/Haram al Sharif. That day, news agencies reported violent clashes between Israeli troops and Palestinians enraged by Sharon’s visit. AP published a photograph of a young man, bloodied and kneeling in front of an angry Israeli brandishing a baton.

Now it doesn’t take an insider to know that something is wrong here. There are no gas stations anywhere near the Temple Mount, so the location is clearly mistaken. But the mistakes far exceed mere location, and a closer look suggests that the Israeli soldier seems to be yelling at people beyond the wounded man. The man wounded in the picture is not a Palestinian, but an American Jew, a seminary student, who was dragged from his car by an angry mob of Palestinians and almost beaten and stabbed to death. (It took him months in the hospital to recover.) Read Tuvya Grossman’s personal account here. The Israeli is then not beating the boy, but protecting him from the mob, which is the object of his anger and attention. Among other papers, the New York Times, without checking any of these facts, ran the picture with the caption.

Nothing illustrates better the problem of paradigmatic expectations influencing what we see and how we register it. The Palestinians are the victims, the Israelis the victimizers. The picture illustrates JP: aggressive Palestinians initiating violence against civilians in Israel, and Israeli restraint (the soldier does not even use a gun to chase the murderous crowd). The caption re-reads the photo so it accords with PCP: aggressive Israelis viciously attacking unarmed Palestinian demonstrators on the third holiest site in Islam.

It took the NYT 4 days to acknowledge the error identifying the victim as “Tuvya Grossman of Chicago” and a week to do a story on the beating. But by then the damage had been done. Not only was the PCP firmly set in place, but also the picture had become an emblem of Palestinian victimization. Despite this subsequent retraction, therefore, as in the case of the poison accusations of 1983, Palestinian and Arab media and their PCP2 supporters have continued to use the picture as part of their Palestinian victim narrative. To this day, Tuvya Grossman’s picture adorns a poster calling on everyone in the world to boycott Coca Cola in order to stop Israelis from killing Palestinians like this man.

With such a powerful storyline affecting (and transforming) the very nature of the evidence that our MSM presented to us at the outbreak of the violence in the Fall of 2000, is it surprising that the following day, they responded so eagerly to yet another piece of evidence that supported their PCP grand narrative – the case of Muhamed al Durah?


“Don’t the Israelis also do fictional news?”

Every country’s media spins the news in its defense, and plays with a margin of judgment in what it may present to the public.

There are analysts who argue that Israel is far superior in manipulating the media:

- Delinda C. Hanley, News Editor of the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, argues that Israeli spin-doctors have been successful in portraying in the American media the victims (the Palestinians) as the aggressors in the conflict.

- Alison Weir, founder of If Americans Knew argues that the Western media, particularly American, have been consistently pro-Israeli in their coverage of the conflict. She calls it a “pervasive pattern of distortion.”

- Daniel Dor, from Tel Aviv university, in “Intifada Hits the Headlines,” (2004) argues that the Israeli press has aligned itself with the propaganda coming from the Israeli establishment. To him, in times of conflict the press in liberal democracies plays a “role not totally dissimilar to that of the press in non-democracies.” (Page 168) For a brief excerpt of his book read here.

But the differences here are so large as to demand particular attention to this issue:

- The Israelis do not fake images of injury; on the contrary, deep taboos prevent the Israeli press from showing pictures of dead bodies.

- Nor do the Israelis constantly show images designed to arouse hatred, unlike Palestinians. Compare the coverage given in Israel to the stunning footage from the Ramallah lynching of Oct. 12, 2000 with the constant repetition on TV and in the school curriculum of the footage and of reenactments of the Muhamed A Durah affair two weeks earlier.

- The Israeli press constitutes one of the most self-critical presses in the world. Mistakes rarely pass undetected and undenounced. When the IDF accused the UN of using their ambulances to move Kassam rockets and the evidence failed to provide proof, the Israeli press denounced the mistake sharply: “Israel behaved with reckless haste and injured its pretensions to superiority over the Palestinians with regard to credibility.”

There is no equivalent in the Palestinian – or Arab – press of Gideon Levy and Amirah Hass, journalists for Ha-Aretz. This element of self-criticism is, for the most part, absent in the Arab media. For an enlightening example, read here and here.

- Even organizations denounced by the other side as “propaganda” sites, like Palestinian Media Watch and MEMRI, are scrupulously honest in the material they post from the Arab world, in their translations, even careful not only to post the negative comments in the Arab press, but also the positive ones.

- To make the facile, “even-handed” comparison misses a major distinction between the rough and tumble criticisms of a free press in Israel and the intimidation and high propaganda content of the press in Arab authoritarian societies. If one cannot understand these differences, one cannot understand the value and importance of self-critical free press sustaining civil society. Tolerance for criticism and for variant viewpoints marks the commitment to civil society.


- Pallywood distorts Western and Middle Eastern public opinion.

- Aggravates the narrative victim/victimizer, dominant in both Western and Middle East Media, that prolongs the conflict

- Perpetuates the David (Palestinians) Vs Goliath (Israel) narrative.

- Contributes to the demonization of Israel/rise of anti-Semitism

- An accurate and fair MSM are crucial for a healthy civil society.

- By its sheer drama Pallywood leads to Western romantization of the Palestinian struggle and justification of the most atrocious methods to achieve their aims.

“They’re beautiful, highly trained and deadly. They are the female suicide bombers.” Australia’s New Idea magazine, April 7, 2003.

To Be Continued …

51 Responses to Pallywood: A History

  1. [...] Equivalence Cognitive Egocentrism Self Criticism Conspiracies Demopaths & Dupes Pallywood: A History Essays on [...]

  2. [...] Equivalence Cognitive Egocentrism Self Criticism Conspiracies Demopaths & Dupes Pallywood: A History Essays on [...]

  3. [...] Equivalence Cognitive Egocentrism Self Criticism Conspiracies Demopaths & Dupes Pallywood: A History Essays on [...]

  4. [...] Landes invented the word ‘Pallywood‘ to describe fake ‘news’ created by Palestinians as supposed evidence of Israeli [...]

  5. [...] (Palestinian hoax propaganda) back to the first Lebanon War. He has an excellent article about it HERE at his blogsite, AUGEAN STABLES. Read | [...]

  6. [...] hat mich einmal, dass Prof. Landes den Beginn von „Pallywood“ in den Libanonkrieg von 1982 legte. Offensichtlich wurden dort schon Fälschungen vorgenommen und die Medien übernahmen eine offen [...]

    • hamdi says:

      In a collective sense, Americans are uniklely to get it regarding this specific issue in the larger contexts of Middle Eastern, Monotheistic religious disputes, the global economy being undermined by mobilisation for war and the indulgence in war all for various capitalist interests masked in national security issues irrespective of the babbling propaganda emanating from the nation states involved. We as are the participants in the intifada are as drunk on the swill of propaganda as are the Sefardim, Orthodox and Likud Block following Israelis. In any group of people, if large enough, anyone can identify the sheep, the sheeple, the wolves luxuriously wrapped in lambs wool, the greedy, the liars, and the peddlers of fear. The vast bulk of humanity is unfortunately in one of the above groups, whether they are ready to brandish pitchforks in defense of their leaders effort to rip them off economically, or they are themselves the agents of rumour and lies.Nevertheless, Israel should have given up the West Bank and Gaza, and thereby forced responsibility on the remaining residents. There is also simply no rational excuse for continuing an effort to push Israel into the sea. Where is the cutoff in righting a wrong in history? I will give two examples outside of this context which illustrate humanity’s failure to be sensible in such matters; Serbs still celebrate the Battle of Kosovo, a glorious LOSS more than half a millenium ago; and Armenians have only very recently stopped occaisionally blowing up Turks and Turkish interests in retaliation for the monstrous Turkish genocide of Armenians in 1915 proof that the sheeple way of life and the intoxicating beverage of propaganda are extremely difficult to collectively reject but there is the smallest measure of hope something will change.As a country filled with a great mass of the subfunctionally educated, certain that God blessed America in a super duper really ancient olde English word of King James Bible (obviously Jesus spoke English and King James wanted to make sure we Americans were duly noted as a part of our manifest; thanks King) and countered by relatively few horizontally thinking citizens, does it seem likely that we will get it anytime soon? Most of the sheeple need to start throwing shoes at their parasitical maggot leaders including Robert Mugabe, and it should have been Americans who hurled our cultural equivalent of shoes at Bush. Iraqis, Egyptians and Israelis should do the same to their leaders too. Most leaders offer nothing but base corruption, lies, deceit, venality and educational atrophy and varying forms of misery to the adoring sheeple. A case in point, I give you Wall Street executives, societal pillars all. Now that’s top drawer quality. Oh well SOME Muslims aren’t the only ones who despise American leaders like Bush and the Wall street financiers of war.

  7. [...] pattern has long been clear, and most recently carried out with explosive effectiveness in the Lebanon war of 2006… when [...]

  8. [...] Ich erinnere an Kfar Kana. An die getötete Familie am Strand von Gaza, die mit höchster Wahrscheinlichkeit nicht von einem israelischen Geschoß  getötet wurde, obwohl die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung es nie in die großen internationalen Medien geschafft haben. An Mohammed al Dura (ein hochinteressanter Eintrag bei ShrinkWrapped mit Links).  Ich sage nur Pallywood. [...]

  9. [...] while Hamas is let off the hook for its continued aggression, violence against fellow Palestinians, media manipulation, use of human shields, and of schools, hospitals, UN offices, and mosques as bases from which to [...]

  10. Hamas on Campus…

    If further proof was needed that the field of Middle East studies is marred by a politicized, morally vacuous approach to the Arab-Israeli conflict, the reaction of many of its leading lights to the current war in Gaza should suffice.

    According to the…

    • Muhammad says:

      palestinian media is unreliable for this resoan. either they make things up, stage things or exaggerate. in many cases, palestinian terrorists have deliberately surrounded themselves with children.

    • Ali says:

      Sue, you are right. I actually exeiprenced what Palestinians face in Hebron in June. Our group of 18 was told to stay close together as the week before Jewish residents (Settlers) threw a bottle at a tourist. An older women who was a member of Christian Peace Maker Team gave us a tour of Hebron. They (CPT) were asked there to accompany Palestinian children to school so that they would not be attacked by Jews. Hard to believe, that a group that was so awfully treated by Germans would inflict such suffering on others.I saw The Boy in Stripped Pajamas on Sunday and wondering about the inhumanity of people. It is so easy to manipulate people into believing they are evil and you good.

  11. [...] the jihadists make their case. “Hamas Does PR,” by Brian C. Ledbetter at Snapped Shot, Pallywood History*  ’Mother of all suicide bombers’ warns of rise in attacksA captured Iraqi terrorist [...]

  12. [...] GaarderReflections from The Second DraftCognitive EgocentrismDemopaths & DupesMoral EquivalencePallywood: A HistoryCivil Society vs. Prime-Divider SocietyEurabiaGame Theory and Social EmotionsIslamophobia and [...]

  13. [...] GaarderReflections from The Second DraftCognitive EgocentrismDemopaths & DupesMoral EquivalencePallywood: A HistoryCivil Society vs. Prime-Divider SocietyEurabiaGame Theory and Social EmotionsIslamophobia and [...]

  14. [...] PALLYWOOD: HISTORY The term “Pallywood” refers to the staging of scenes by Palestinian journalists in order to present the Palestinians as hapless victims of Israeli aggression. They are able to succeed in this endeavor in large part due to the credulity and eagerness of the Western press to present these images, which reinforce the image of the Palestinian David struggling valiantly against the overpowering Israeli Goliath. Pallywood has led to astonishing lapses in Western journalistic standards in which badly staged scenes regularly appear on the news as “real events.” This page attempts to outline how such lapses could have come about, producing the current situation. [...]

  15. [...] with the Flotilla of Fools pretty much seeming to be toast, what’s next Pallywood PR schtick [...]

  16. [...] “news,” images etc. By the infamous Pallywood (Palestinian Authority Hollywood),[811][812][813][814][815] like [...]

    • Sainath says:

      Below is a report wetrittn by Abed, a Palestinian peace activists with a BA in sociology, who is in the middle of his masters’ studies on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict .(He started in the Hebrew University but can’t finish because of travel restrictions.) He lives in the West Bank.I received this report from an Israeli women who belongs to an Israeli group called New Profiles. ______________________________________ The Full Story 12 December, 2008Last night a group of settlers (Jews) invaded Asaweyah village (in the West Bank), they wrote racial slogans in the external walls of the mosque of the village.. . They then walked down the main street of the village smashing car’s windows and cutting car’s tires. People from the nearby town of Qabalan found that the settlers have burnt large quantity of animal’s food at the entrance to their town. In the morning the Israeli army reached the village and started to clean the slogans. Later that morning a women from the nearby village of Ras Karkar, called me after discovering hundreds of olive trees belonging to her family and other families have been brutally cut by settlers I am turning to you Israeli friends, as a peace and human-rights activist to tell you about these terrible acts and ask for your help in trying to do something concrete to stop these brutal and savage actions.It is important to do something as this unprovoked aggression damages the peaceful nature and approach of the people of my village Asswayah. This peaceful, approach has been gently built through good relations and co-operation with a number of Israeli friends.I can’t understand in what context the settler are trying to justifying these provocative incidents. It would be difficult to find even one pretext for their actions (such as stone throwing); their attempts to say that they are acting in self-defense must be exposed for their inaccuracy.The settlers around our village have always wanted us to suffer and these last incidents open for me and my family a particular painful and traumatic memory as I lost my lovely thirteen years old nephew Yazan who was brutally killed by a settler three years ago. (The settler was sentenced to two years).Yazan was only 13 years old, bright, kind with a lovely innocent smile. He was raised on the principles of love and solidarity, and therefore so many felt deep sadness at his terrible loss. This inconceivably painful event turned my brother’s family life into tragedy. Despite the huge grief of our family since the death of Yazan, our belief in the necessity to build peaceful relationships between Israelis and Palestinians had never diminished. Our commitment to carry a peaceful message and educate in the light of this approach has become even more relevant.In the light of continuing Israeli government supports for the settlers in all levels: politically, military and judicial we are hoping to see sincere attempts and action among ordinary Israelis that can help to expose and denounce these brutal provocations and show solidarity with innocent Palestinians who are hurt and damaged.Let me ask you kindly spread my letter among your friends so that Israeli’s might realize what the settlements and settlers represent, and the actual restrictions and threat they pose to any effort to create normal and peaceful coexistent .Abed Khalil Peace & human rights activist

  17. [...] places like Daily Kos gets met with the howls of “racism!” despite the fact that it is a wholly verified phenomenon.My intention going forward is to highlight each of these verboten topics into discreet discussions [...]

    • Sieed says:

      At the Arava Institute for Environmental Studies ( founded by the same Dr. Alon Tal mtienoned in the article above) for the last 12 years hundreds of Israeli, Palestinian and Jordanian students (along with their English speaking overseas counterparts) have studied the environment and how we can solve shared challenges in the region by working together. The alumni have founded a network called the Arava alumni Peace and Environmental Network (AAPEN) to work together to continue to transcend political borders after their studies at the Arava Institute when people go on to graduate studies or work in the field. We invite anyone who is interested in the field to come and study with us and become a part of the AAPEN network. We absolutely believe that this is the way to learn to live together and improve life for all of us in the region.Sharon

  18. [...] Let's launch 'Arab Apartheid Week… JPost – Opinion – Columnists [47] The Second Draft, Pallywood: A History | Augean Stables, PALLYWOOD – Palestinian Media fraud Industry, Take A Pen reveals [48] Fast Facts on the Middle [...]

  19. [...] is all part and parcel of the Arab propaganda known as Pallywood The term “Pallywood” refers to the staging of scenes by Palestinian journalists in [...]

  20. [...] Israeli human rights abuses over the Internet. ISM-affiliated “journalists” arrange to film false flag operations staged by activists, such as claims Arabs were victimized by Jewish settlers on Arab land when the [...]

  21. [...] Israeli human rights abuses over the Internet. ISM-affiliated “journalists” arrange to film false flag operations staged by activists, such as claims Arabs were victimized by Jewish settlers on Arab land when the [...]

  22. [...] CNN Uses Video Footage Of Faked Palestinian 'Injuries' I didn't see another thread on this. Pallywood: A History | Augean Stables PALLYWOOD: HISTORY DEFINITION The term “Pallywood” refers to the staging of scenes [...]

  23. [...] Originally Posted by Confederate Bayou Oilman Wait a minute. I saw a pic of that girl on the left yesterday dead and being carried through the streets in someones arms but she wasn't charred like that on the slab. I'll try to find it. I think the little girl on the slab is not the same girl on the left. Edit: That pic was in another post on Citi Data Forum. Give me a minute and I will post it. Edit again. You might not want to watch this video of the little girl on the slab but she was still alive when found. Brace yourselves folks. Israeli attack on Gaza leaves burned, mutilated child victims | Grant J. Kidney, at War with the Establishment! 3rd Update: Here is what I saw yesterday. She obvious isn't the charred girl on the slab. Another Pallywood production Pallywood: A History | Augean Stables [...]

  24. [...] – the Palestinians, and “the perpetrators” – the Israelis?This is another case of Pallywood (media manipulation)! If you don’t know what I mean by that, simply watch this BBC [...]

  25. [...] could also notice a measure of irritation with Karsenty, along with the growing questioning of “Pallywood,” “Hezbollywood,” “Syriawood,” and almost any other Mideast production. SNJ, the French [...]

  26. [...] the story begins with Israel’s retaliation which must, by definition, be disproportionate. Pallywood footage is created to meet the demands of this framing [...]

  27. […] in altri Paesi, ove non vere e proprie sceneggiate, secondo lo stile ormai noto come “Pallywood“. Queste immagini sono ovunque sui siti dei media e sui social network e vengono ancora oggi […]

  28. […] problem, of course, as we know from our experience with Pallywood over recent years and decades, is that news reports from the region are highly unreliable and often […]

  29. […] Charles Enderlin, and that his collaboration with abu Rahmah goes back to this time (1988). Indeed, I would date the first “heyday” of Pallywood to this […]

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